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Martin Behaim's 1492 'Erdapfel'

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In 1991 we journeyed to the Germanisches Mueum located at Nuremberg with the intention of studying this most important globe for our second facsimile globe, however despite making an appointment our ambition was thwarted as on arrival we were informed that the museum already had an agreement with another publisher and consequently we did not have their support. We then made our facsimile version using Ravenstein's 1908 gores as foundation and the finished globe with its wrought iron stand and engraved brass horizon ring was well recieved and now can be found in museums and libraries the world over. But we always knew we had the potential to make a more definative facsimile with the cooperation with the museum. I am delighted to report that exactly 30 years later permission was sought and finally granted.

Using their digital data and achive photographs we have now made the first version using the Germanisches Mueum data. This first version has a sperical ball with the sunken pole.



Behaim Facsimile Globe



greaves & Thomas facsimile globe

Africa depicts tents, natives, elephants and inscriptions by the dozen!



Greaves & Thomas Behaim facsimile

While this is the sperical version, we have made the south pole concave like the original.

Behaim Globe Japan


behaim globus

The brass ring was added in 1510, possibly there was a wooden version with velum and indexing prior to this addition.



Prices for the Behaim globe ( not including shipping or packing).


Spherical Ball Version - with concave south pole:

Suspended Version............GT 1492 H: £1200
On Student Base...............GT 1492 S: £2,000
On Wrought Iron Base..... GT 1492 : £5,000


Available later this year


Pickled Ball Version:

Suspended Version............GT 1492 H: £1800
On Student Base...............GT 1492 S: £3,000
On Wrought Iron Base..... GT 1492 : £7,500



Ravenstein's book of translations. GT 1492 B: £45.00


Shipping vary depending where on this globe you presently live. If you are interested in any of our globes on our web site, please email us the reference number(s) and state which country you live in and if you require a sh



Below is our 1992 facsimile of Martin Behaim's Erdapfel

This version we have now withdrawn form production. Past purchasers who purchased this version will be able to send their globe back so we can recover the globe with the gores we are preparing, they will also have the option of the shrunken/pickled sphere.


Greaves  and Thomas Facsimile Behaim Globe 1992



Martin Behaim's 1492 Globe, or 'Erdapfel' (earthapple), is our earliest surviving terrestrial globe. Made just prior to the discovery of the Americas, it gives a very clear and fascinating insight into what the 15th-century intelligentsia of Europe believed, not only from a cartographic standpoint but also because the surface of the Globe is covered in illustrations and inscriptions (taken from Ptolemy, Isidor of Seville, Marco Polo, etc.), describing fantastic lands, legends, superstitions, natural resources, beasts as well as astrological symbols - all this compiled onto one Globe. No other terrestrial globe made in its wake was to offer as much information, making Martin Behaim's Globe unique. For this reason we started to research into the possibility of making a full-size facsimile.

You can spin Martin's globe as much as you like but you will never find America!

In 1847 and 1908 two facsimile globes were made: the first for the Bibliotheque Nationale Paris, by E.F.Jomard, with the work being supervised by the famous engraver and artist A.Reindel. The second facsimile, of which several were made, as well as being published as gores, in a finely bound limited edition book, was undertaken by E.G.Ravenstein, a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, London.

One of the most beautiful areas of the globe is the ship sailing in the Indian Ocean.



We also offer the Behaim Globe on a Student Base with Brass armature.


Flags belongong to Spain and Portugal are dominating the East Coast of Africa, Azores, Canaries and Cape Verde Islands



Our facsimile Behaim Globe prominently placed in a 18th century manor house in London.


We decided to use Ravenstein's 1908 Gores as a foundation. Ravenstein's text and positioning of countries and landmarks appeared to be accurate; however the visual appearance of his globe was sadly very different from the original. The original Globe was finely painted by the renowned artist Georg Glockendon, whose beautiful illustrations and subtle hues and tones are absent on Ravenstein's copy, as well as any appearance of age or damage. Ravenstein was clearly aware of this. His first intention was to 'publish his facsimile in a simple manner', his publisher's insistence on 'elaborate colour printing' indicates that Ravenstein had no intention of attempting to make an 'exact' facsimile from the visual standpoint. To him the importance was to portray the positioning and text of the original Globe. This is confirmed in his book on Behaim where he humbly states that, due to the fact that 'facsimile' implies an exact copy or likeness, he could not claim to give his Globe that description. He writes: 'I trust notwithstanding its many shortcomings, it will prove acceptable to students and antiquaries alike'. Nevertheless Ravenstein clearly did do a remarkable job, his biography and his Gores show this.

Our facsimile version includes the brass engraved horizon which was added in 1510


In 1847, and I would deduce after Jomard had completed his facsimile, 'restorers' were let loose for the second time on the Behaim Globe. Their 'restoration' severely damaged it. The restorers varnish bled into Glockendon's artwork , sadly making many parts of the Globe illegible. This in itself shows the importance of a facsimile.


It is not known for certain if the sunken pole was a deliberate design feature of the globe as the word "Erdapfel" means Earth Apple or if the Southpole has collapsd through age.

Due to this disaster Ravenstein clearly had quite a task before him. For his facsimile Ravenstein used Jomard's Globe as well as the original. Jomard however had used as reference not only the original Globe but also Doppelmayr's 1770 'Globular Projection', Sebastian Müunster's 'Cosmographia' and a 'map on vellum' (said to be found in the Behaim Family Archives, being 'a fairly correct and neat copy of this globe upon two rolls of parchment'). Ravenstein found that these sources led to 'a few sins of commission and omission' on Jomard's Globe in comparison to the original. Ravenstein's Gores are probably one of the finest pieces of cartographic editing undertaken.


From our studies of the original Globe in Nuremberg we confirmed that Ravenstein's positions and inscriptions were accurate (the inscriptions, where illegible, could have been retrieved from the various books originally used by Behaim). However the hundreds of place-names were obviously more of a problem; age and 'restoration' made many of the place-names extremely hard to read and consequently this is where a small percentage of errors can be found.


In the making of our set of Gores, the task of transferring our data and workings combined with Ravenstein's seemed a daunting prospect. Apart from the merging varnish, where we found damage we felt this should be illustrated (this is why the ocean is several different tones). For this and the work of Glockendon we commissioned Sheila Hadley whose reputation for exact scientific illustration was well justified. Her ability to recreate the 'spirit' of Martin Behaim's 'Erdapfel' is excellent. For the printing, including the booklet, 100% recycled paper was selected. The balls are made in the traditional method from two plaster hemispheres. The base is available in two versions: a 'student' version being a turned ebonised wooden base (made using replenished, recycled, or reconstituted European timber); and a copy of the 1510 brass and wrought iron stand upon which the 'Erdapfel' stands. For the iron work we commissioned the services of a professional blacksmith who, by using re-rolled antique wrought iron, has 'fire welded' and riveted a very fine copy of the original.


James Bissell-Thomas/Greaves & Thomas, England.


Blacksmith Will Stay forges Martin's globe again in the 21st century.



Suspended version, wrought iron version and student version.Displayed with book of translations and also displaying 5 of the 12 gores.


This globe is 51 cms (20") in diameter. It is available in three formats: on a wrought iron stand with fully a copy of the engraved brass horizon ring which was added in 1510.

An ebonised hand turned wooden stand is available as well as being simply fitted with brass rings to enable suspension.



We are delighted to announce that this facsimile can now be found in numerous public collections worldwide:

Purchased by:-

The Library of Congress, Washington D.C. U.S.A.

Casa Colon, Gran Caneria, Canary Isles.

Nagasaki Prefectural Art Museum, Japan.

Comissio dos Descobrimentos, Portugal.

Kobe Museum. Japan.

Brazilian Naval Commission, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Penny Black Museum, Mauritius.

Stewart Museum, Montreal, Canada.

This important globe was exhibited in Christies 'World in your Hands' exhibition with Rudolf Schmidt's fantastic collection of historic globes and globe related items.

On a lighter note, the globe has also appeared in numerous documentary's and cinema films: BBC's 'tales from the Map Room'; Rene Margot; Wind in the Willows to name but a few; however one of the most memorable images is possibly the use of this globe in the recent remake of Walt Disney's 101 Dalmatians - here you will find the globe in Cruella De Vil's country pile, located in the attic covered in cobwebs and due to a large hole a small Dalmatian puppy is using it as a kennel! Our Behaim globe also appears in 'The Mummy Returns'. Lastly you will see this globe alongside other G&T globes in the Harry Potter films.

But to date our most important sale was to Baron Alexander von Behaim-Schwartzbach, a distant relative of Martin Behaim, he has kindly described the facsimile as "excellent". His family lost the globe before World War 2 when Adolf Hitler decided that should belong to the German people, enforcing a sale. When Alexander received his facsimile he remarked that he "really had the feeling that the globe had returned to the family again".

(With the Wrought Iron version we have also emulated the sunken southern pole which the original in the Germanisch Museum now has)


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Extracts from our hardback book of translations:





1459-76 Martin Behaim was the eldest of seven children born to Martin Behaim and Agnes Schopper in Nuremberg. Martin Behaim (senior) was a general merchant and in his younger years business had taken him as far as Venice, he was elected a Senator in 1461, and died in 1474. His wife survived him thirteen years and died on July 8, 1487. Young Martin Behaim was intended to follow a commercial career, and he received no doubt the most perfect education suitable to his future. His commercial training he received, as a matter of course, in his father's business; after his death the interests of the youth were looked after by his uncle Leonhard, and by Bartels (Bartholomew) von Eyb, a friend of the family and one of the executors of the last will and testament of his mother.


Martin Behaim at Mechlin 1476-79 On the termination of his apprenticeship, in 1476, young Martin was sent abroad in order that he might improve his technical and commercial knowledge. He was first placed with Jorius van Dorpp, a cloth-merchant of Mechlin, with whom he remained for over a year. Visits to the fairs at Frankfurt were included in the scheme of Behaim's commercial education. The first of these visits was to have been paid at Easter 1477, but as the roads were not safe at that time for travellers, Jorius van Dorpp preferred to sell his cloth direct to a German merchant at Antwerp. Later in the year Martin, by desire of his mother, visited the autumn fair when he was initiated by fatherly friend, Bartels von Eyb, into the mysteries of buying and selling. Martin Behaim at Antwerp 1479-84 He was once more at Frankfurt in the following autumn, and in a letter written to his uncle Leonhard, on September 18, 1478, he suggested a removal from Mechlin, expressed a desire to be placed with good (fromme) people engaged in commerce, declared his willingness to be bound for three years and promised to shirk no drudgery as long as it would help him in his business career. This question of a change was no doubt considered by his mother, his uncle and by Bartels von Eyb, the friend and adviser of his mother, for early in the following year, if not before, we find our young merchant transferred to the cloth-dye-house of Fritz Heberlein, a Nuremberger established at Antwerp. To judge from a letter which young Martin wrote to his uncle Leonhard on June 8, 1479, he was well pleased with his stay there. He was a favourite with his master and the members of the household, whilst the foreman, in return for being taught arithmetic, initiated him into the mysteries of the cloth trade. Behaim, whilst in the service of Heberlein, was permitted to speculate in cloth on his own account on condition of the cloth being dyed in his master's dye-house.

A Dance at a Jew's Wedding

It was on the 1st of March 1483 when Martin Behaim, Hans Imhof and 3 others were charged with having been present at a Jew's wedding on Ember day (February 26th). Martin Behaim and Sebastian Deichsler, having actually danced at the wedding - a heinous offence, as it was Lent - were condemned to a week's imprisonment; the others escaped with a reprimand. The sentence, in the case of Behaim, was allowed to stand over until his return from an intended visit to the fair at Frankfurt. History does not tell whether the culprit was imprisoned on his return to Nuremberg.


Martin Behaim first went to Lisbon in June, 1484, at the earliest. It is likely also that the main, if not the sole, object of this journey was of a commercial nature. Commercial relations between Portugal, on the one hand, and Flanders, the Hanse towns and several cities of Upper Germany, on the other, had long since been established.


Very little is known of the life led by Behaim at Lisbon. There is no doubt, however, that at an early period he made the acquaintance of Josse van Hurter, the Captain Donatory of Fayal and Pico, whose daughter Joanna de Macedo became his wife (this happened in 1488 or earlier, as a son was born to him on April 6, 1489). This connection no doubt gained him admission to the Court and to Society even though his personal claims as the eldest son of a German patrician might have done so. It is possible that Behaim, on making this aristocratic connection, gave up commerce, took up his residence in Fayal, and assisted his father-in-law in the management of his estate. But whatever his occupation, there were rumours that Behaim's conduct was not that of an honourable man. Thus, his brother Wolf, writing from Lyons to his cousin Michael, on November 27, 1491, says:

"Here at Lyons they say things about Martin which make me ashamed of him, and I wish very much we were rid of him altogether."

There may have been a foundation for these rumours current among commercial men at Lyons. Martin may have been guilty of "irregularities" in matters of business, which in the eyes of business men are looked upon as heinous offences, although treated with some indulgence by men of the world. We can hardly believe his conduct to have been "dishonourable", or his father-in-law, only a few years afterwards, would not have intrusted him with the collection of money owing for sugar sold into Flanders. Nevertheless Martin Behaim was apparently knighted on Friday, February 18, 1485 by King John II of Portugal. It is uncertain what Behaim had done to render himself deserving of the distinction of a knighthood. It may have been his supposed services as an astronomer and cosmographer, or he may have been engaged in one of the numerous skirmishes which took place at Ceuta and elsewhere in Africa, for the inscription on the memorial chandelier at Nuremberg tells us that he "stoutly fought the African Moors". It is, however, quite possible that he owed his knighthood to personal influence.

It is quite possible that Behaim and Christopher Columbus met during Columbus's residence in Portugal, and that they discussed the scheme of discovering the East by the West. However it is not certain, and there is little evidence to support this theory beyond an account given by Antonio de Herrera, in his 'Historia General de las Indias' (Dec. I, lib. 6, I, c. 2), in which after referring to Columbus's views as to the ease with which India might be reached by sailing to the West, he adds that, Martin Behaim "he was confirmed in this opinion by his friend Martin de Bohemia, a Portuguese, a native of the island of Fayal, a cosmographer of great judgement".


Advisory Committees

King John II is known on several occasions to have referred questions of a scientific or technical nature to men of learning who enjoyed his confidence and who he believed would wisely advise him. It is in one such Junta that Martin Behaim participated. It was appointed in 1484 or at latest in 1485 with the task of laying down simple rules for determining the latitude from meridian altitudes of the sun, for the pole star, which had served for that purpose in the past, was no longer available once the Portuguese navigators had crossed the Equator. We are indebted to the famous historian João de Barros for an account of this Junta. J. de Barros (who wrote in 1589), having informed his readers that when Vasco da Gama reached the Bay of St. Helena he set up his large wooden astrolabe on land, as he had been unable to obtain trustworthy meridian altitudes of the sun on the deck of an unsteady vessel, either with that instrument or with some of the smaller astrolabes of brass with which he had been supplied, and having asserted that the Portuguese Mariners were the first to employ these altitudes for the determination of latitude, continues as follows:- "At the time when Prince Henry began the exploration of Guinea the mariners sailed within sight of the coast, being guided by landmarks which they described in sailing directions, such as are still in some way in use at present, and this sufficed for this mode of exploration. But subsequently, when, in the pursuit of their discoveries, they lost sight of the land and penetrated the open sea, they found that owing to currents and other secrets of the sea their estimate of a day's work was frequently erroneous, whilst an observation of the altitude (of the sun) would have shown correctly the distance run. And as necessity is the mistress of all arts, King John II referred this matter to Master Rodrigo and Master Josepe, a Jew, and both his physicians, and to one Martin of Bohemia, a native of that country, who boasted of being a disciple of John of Monte Regio, famed among the students of the science of astronomy. These discovered this manner of navigating by altitudes of the sun, and made tables of its declination, such as are now in use among navigators, and which are now more exact than in the beginning, when these large wooden astrolabes were in use." A statement made by so distinguished an author is entitled to respect and deserves careful examination. Still, it is worth drawing attention to the fact that, even in the days of Prince Henry, the Portuguese were not afraid to venture upon the high sea, for they sailed to the Azores, lying 600 sea miles from the nearest land.


Behaim has transmitted two accounts of the voyage along the west coast of Africa which he claims to have made, and on the strength of which posterity has dubbed him 'the Navigator'. The first and more ample of these accounts may be gathered from the legends of his Globe and the geographical features delineated upon it. The second account has found a place in the 'Liber chronicorum,' compiled at the suggestion of Sebald Schreyer by Dr. Hartmann Schedel, printed by Anton Koberger and published on July 12, 1493, on the eve of Behaim's departure from Nuremberg. The original MS. of this work, in Latin, still exists in the town library of Nuremberg, as also the MS. of a German translation which was completed on October 5, 1493, by Georg Alt, the town-clerk. The body of the Latin MS. is written in a stiff clerk's hand, and is evidently a clean copy made from the author's original. The paragraph referring to Behaim has been added in the margin, in a running hand. In the German translation this paragraph is embodied in the text. This proves that this information was given to the editor after he had completed the Latin original of his work, but before Georg Alt had translated it. Behaim at that time was still at Nuremberg, and there can be no doubt that it was he who communicated to Dr. H. Schedel this interesting information, and is responsible for it. A summary of the two Accounts These two accounts may be combined as follows:-

In 1484 two caravels, commanded by Diogo Cao and Martin Behaim, were despatched by King John. They traded with the Jalof and the people of the Gambia, and sailing east "found" the Guinea Islands, including the Insula Martini. Having crossed the Equator, a feat attempted in vain by the Genoese for many years, they discovered another world. Sailing south as far as 37 degrees, they reached a Monte Negro, the extreme Cape of Africa, where, on January 18, 1485, they set up a column. Doubling this cape they sailed east another 260 leagues, as far as Cabo Ledo, when they turned back. King Furfur's Land, where grows the Portuguese pepper, seems to have been visited on the homeward journey in 1485. After an absence of 19 (26 or 16) months, they were once more at Lisbon, having suffered heavy losses from the great heat, and bringing with them grains of paradise, pepper and probably also cinnamon (said to have been discovered beyond King Furfur's Land) in proof of the discoveries they had made.

Behaim's account examined It is quite conceivable that Behaim's townsmen in the centre of Germany believed this account of his African voyage, but Behaim himself must have been aware that he was misleading them with a view to his own glorification. Even though he had made no voyage to the Guinea coast at all, and took no special interest in geographical exploration, he must have known that the islands of Fernando Po, do Principe and St. Thomé, as well as the Guinea coast as far as the Cape of Catharina in latitude 1degree 50' south, had been discovered in the lifetime of King Alfonso, who died in 1481. Genoese, and also Flemings, certainly took a small share in the trade carried on along the coast discovered by the Portuguese, but since the days of Teodosio Doria and the brothers Vivaldi, in 1291, no Genoese vessels had started with a view of tracing the coast of Africa beyond the Equator. Behaim, if he really joined Cao in an expedition to Africa, must have known that his companion, in 1482, had discovered a mighty river and the powerful kingdom of the Mani Congo, and that in the course of a second expedition, in 1485, Cao traced the coast as far as a Cabo do Padrao, quite six degrees beyond the Monte Negro of his Globe. He must have known that Dias, in 1488, returned with the glorious news that he had doubled the southern cape of Africa, 12 degrees to the south of this padrão, and explored the coast for 120 leagues beyond, when the ocean highway to India lay open before him. Behaim is silent with reference to these facts and any person examining his globe, and not conversant with them, would naturally conclude that it was Behaim, and his companion Cao, who first doubled the southern cape of Africa.


Martin Behaim left his home in the spring of 1490 to visit his native town of Nuremberg where he arrived in the summer of 1490. The main object of his journey was of a business nature. His mother having died in 1487 the time had arrived for a distribution of her estate among the heirs. It is pretty safe to assume that this business which had brought Martin Behaim to Nuremberg had been satisfactorily settled by the end of August 1491. He might therefore have departed for his distant island home at once, but it pleased him to extend the duration of his visit for another couple of years. It is to this extension of his visit and one Georg Holzschuher, a member of the City Council, that we are indebted for the famous globe.

Georg Holzschuher in 1470 had visited Egypt and the Holy Land, and he evidently took some interest in the progress of geographical discoveries. It was he who suggested that Behaim should undertakethe making of a globe, upon which the recent discoveries of the Portuguese should be delineated. This suggestion was of course accepted.

At lenghth, in July 1493, and after a stay of nearly three years, Martin Behaim left Nuremberg, carrying with him not only his "goods", but also a letter of his friend Dr H. Monetarius to king John of Portugal, in which he directs the King's attention to the bearer as a person well qualified to be employed in an exploring voyage in the west.


1493 Martin Behaim had hardly returned to Portugal with all his "goods" when he went forth again to Flanders, chiefly no doubt for the purpose of collecting the money which was owing to his father-in-law for sugar, but also, as he asserts, on a secret mission to the "King's son" which King John had confided to him. All we know about this mission we learn from a poorly indited letter which Behaim wrote to his cousin Michael. Cardinal Saraiva declares that it is most unlikely that Behaim was entrusted with such a mission, and that this is only "one of his impostures, so that in his native country he might be looked upon not only as a great discoverer but also as a wise diplomat, enjoying the thorough confidence of the King of Portugal."


Wolf Behaim, the youngest brother of Martin, appears to have come to Lisbon towards the close of 1506 as the representative of the Hirschvogels of Nuremberg, and among the "novelties" introduced by him into the great mart of Western Europe were pocket watches which struck the hours, or "Nuremberg eggs," then recently invented. He evidently met there with his brother in distressed circumstances and living away from his wife, for in reply to a letter which he addressed to his cousin Michael at Nuremberg, the latter replied on January 30, 1507, as follows:-

"I, for my part, cannot mend Martin Behaim's affairs; this and other things we shall have to leave to God. I should like to know how his wife, his son and their friends are, also who they are and where."

Wolf, unfortunately, died on March 20, 1507, a bachelor. His place of burial is uncertain.

Martin Behaim did not long survive his younger brother, for he died on July 29, 1507, very poor and in a hospital. Of the causes of his poverty we know nothing definite. It is believed that he died in the Hospital de Todos os Santos, of which the foundations had been laid by King John in 1492 in the Garden of the Monastery of the Dominicans, and close to their church in which he was buried. A chapel within that church had been granted in 1422 to the German and Flemish brotherhood of the Holy Cross and St. Andrew, a brotherhood which looked after its members in sickness, and saw to their decent burial.

Whilst Martin Behaim's grave at Lisbon was soon forgotten, and can no longer be traced, his son in 1519, whilst at Nuremberg, placed a more permanent memorial in the church of St. Catherine. The inscription on this reads:

"1507, on Thursday after Jacobi July 29th there died the worshipful and valiant Herr Martin Behaim, knight in the kingdom of Portugal. May God have mercy upon him."

This was removed from the church at the beginning of the 19th century. It has been stated that it had been removed to the Germanic Museum, but Ravenstein failed to discover it there. A more permanent and public memorial in honour of Martin Behaim was unveiled at Nuremberg on September 17, 1890. It consists of a bronze statue modelled by Professor Rössner. The "Navigator" is represented clad in armour, with a globe by his side and allegorical figures of Science and Commerce sitting at his feet. Of Martin Behaim it certainly cannot be said what has been said of certain prophets, that he had no honour in his own country...........


Extracts from our hardback book of translations continued:


The Globe



Contemporary globes

MARTIN BEHAIM'S stay at Nuremberg in 1490-93 is memorable for the production of a globe with which his name is identified, and which has secured for him a place in the history of geography. Globes in his age, and even earlier, were by no means unknown. Giovanni Campano, a distinguished mathematician of Novara, who flourished in the time of Pope Urban IV (1261-64), wrote a 'Tractatus de Sphera solida,' in which he describes the manufacture of globes of wood or metal. Toscanelli, when writing his famous letter in 1474, refers to a globe as being best adapted for demonstrating the erroneous hypothesis as to the small distance which he supposed to separate the west of Europe from Eastern Asia. Columbus, too, had a globe on board his vessel upon which was depicted Cipangu, and may have been the work of his brother Bartholomew, who according to Las Casas, produced charts as well as globes. But only two globes of a date anterior to the discovery of the new World remain to us, namley, that still preserved at Nuremberg, and a smaller one at the Depot des planches et cartes de la marine, paris. The latter, known as the "Laon Globe" because M. Léon Leroux picked it up, in 1860, in a curiosity shop of that town, has been described by M. d'Avezac ('Bull. de la Soc. de Géographie,' XX, 1860). It is of copper gilt. Its diameter is 170 mm, and it seems originally to have formed part of an astronomical clockwork. The design of this globe dates back to a period even anterior to the age of Prince Henry the Navigator, but as the names "S. Thomas" and "Mons Niger" [Cão's "furthest" in 1485], and the legend "Hucusq: Portugalen: navigio: pervenere: 1493" are to be read upon it, it has been supposed that this globe, notwithstanding its antiquated geographical features, is in reality no older than the year named. I am not prepared to accept this explanation; I am inclined to think that the above legend was added long after the completion of the globe, this being a cheap and ready means of bringing it up to date, a proceeding by no means unknown among modern map publishers. But however this may be, this "Laon Globe" is too small to enter into competition with the fine globe produced at Nuremberg in 1492.

George Holzschuher's

suggestion We are indebted to the public spirit and the interest taken in geographical discoveries by the chief magistrates of Nuremberg for the production of the globe now under review. The idea of executing such a work was proposed to Martin Behaim by the three "chief captains" or "triumviri" of the Imperial City. They appear to have done so at the suggestion of Georg Holzschuher, a member of the City Council, who had visited Egypt and the Holy Land in 1470. As a far-travelled man he may thus be supposed to have taken an interest in geographical matters, an interest enhanced by the discoveries reported to have been made by the Portuguese, and their commercial advantages, of which members of his family at a later period fully availed themselves. At all events, Georg Holzschuher1 was entrusted by the City Council with the supervision of the work, and in the legend surrounding the city arms, his "help and advice" in producing the globe are acknowledged.

Behaim's qualification

With regard to Behaim's qualification for the task committed to him, I shall have much to say in a future chapter. I may, however, state at once that I agree with Oscar Peschel,2 who calls him a "cosmographical dilettante." It is quite possible, nay, probable, that Behaim took some interest in geographical subjects, that he may even have drawn maps, but we know nothing concerning him which would entitle us to describe him as a "great cosmographer" or an innovator in applied astronomy. His utter failure to portray the results of contemporary Portuguese discoveries upon his globe seems to me to be conclusive in that respect. I would rather class him with a man like Richard Thorne, an English merchant residing at Seville, who in 1527 sent a map illustrating the progress of Portuguese and Spanish discoveries to Dr. Edward Leigh, the ambassador of Henry VIII, for the "rudeness" of which Hakluyt apologises on the ground that "the knowledge of cosmography among our merchants not having been as great then as it now is."

The manufacture of the globe

We are happily in a position to follow the mechanical production of the globe through all its stages, for the accounts rendered by Georg Holzschuher to the city council have been preserved and have been published by Dr. J. Petz, the secretary of the Nuremberg city archives.

The production of the globe involved first the compilation of a map of the world as a guide for the artist employed in painting the globe; secondly, the manufacture of the globe, together with its accessories; thirdly, the transfer of the map to the globe.

The compilation of a "printed mappa mundi, which was used for the globe," naturally fell to the share of Behaim himself. It cost the city council only £1 3s 7d,5 out of which 13s 7d was paid to Behaim himself (probably for expenses out of pocket) and 10s to a limner. This map was subsequently mounted upon two panels, framed and varnished, at an additional expense of £1 1s 4d and hung up in the clerk's office (Kanzlei) of the city hall. Johann Schöner, in 1532, was paid £5 for "renovating" this map and for compiling a new one, recording the discoveries which had been made since the days of Behaim.

The manufacture of a hollow globe or sphere can hardly have presented any difficulty at Nuremberg, where the traditions of the workshop of Johann Muller (Regiomon-tanus), who turned out celestial spheres, were still alive.

The mould or matrix of loam was prepared by a craftsman bearing the curious name of Glockengiesser - bell-founder. The spherical shell was the work of Kalperger. Having covered the mould with successive layers of paper, pasted together so as to form paste-board, he cut the shell into two hemispheres along the line of the intended Equator. The hemispheres were then taken off the mould, and the interior having been given stability by a skeleton of wooden hoops, they were again glued together so as to revolve on an iron axis, the ends of which passed through the two poles. The sphere was then coated with whiting, upon which was laid the vellum which was to bear the design. The vellum was cut into segments resembling the gores of a modern globe, and fitted the sphere most admirably. A smith supplied two iron rings to serve as meridian and horizon, a joiner a stand, and there was provided a lined cover as a protection against dust. All this only cost £3 7s 7d, of which £1 was paid for the mould, £1 10s 0d to Kalperger, 3s 2d for vellum; 5s for the iron rings; a like sum for the stand, and 4s 5d for the cover. Kalperger, however, was not paid the 3 gulden which he claimed for making the shell; for he had been given the linen of a tent which had sheltered the "beautiful fountain" (during repairs); he had moreover broken the first mould which Glockengiesser had made, and lastly he had promised to forgo his claim if Behaim would teach him "cosmography and the laying out (austeilen) of the sphere."

In 1510 the iron meridian was displaced by one of brass, the work of Johann Werner, the astronomer, for which £4 10s was paid. The wooden stand was superseded about the same time by an elegant tripod of iron.

The important duty of transferring the map to the surface of the globe and illuminating it was entrusted to Glockenthon. This artist spent fifteen weeks over this work, for which he was paid £7. In addition to this his wife was awarded 10s, and both being supplied with dinners at an additional cost of at the most 10s, though wine and beer were included.

All in all, and including Kalperger's claim this fine work of art cost the city no more than £13 17s.

For over a hundred years the globe stood in one of the upper reception rooms of the city hall, but in the beginning of the sixteenth century it was claimed by and surrendered to Baron Behaim. This was fortunate, for had it remained, uncared for, in the city hall it might have shared the fate of so many other "monuments" of geographical interest, the loss of which the living generation has been fated to deplore. In November 1907 the globe was removed from Baron W. Behaim's family mansion in the Egydienplatz to the Germanic Museum.

Repairs of the Globe

The globe, in its pristine condition, with its bright colours and numerous miniatures, must have delighted the eyes of a beholder. In the course of time, however, the once brilliant colours darkened or faded, parts of the surface were rubbed off, many of the names became illegible or disappeared altogether. The mechanician Karl Bauer, who, aided by his son Johann Bernhard, repaired the globe in 1823, declared to Ghillany, that it had become very friable, and that he found it difficult to keep it from falling into pieces. In his opinion it could not last much longer. Yet the globe has survived, and its condition seems in no manner worse than it was when it was under treatment by the Bauers. Indeed, on examining the globe, a beholder may feel surprise at the brightness of much of the lettering. This, however, is due to the action of the "renovators," who were let loose upon the globe in 1823, and again in 1847; who were permitted to work their will without the guidance of competent geographer, and, as is the custom of the tribe, have done irreparable mischief. As a result numerous place-names have been corrupted past recognition , and Dr. Scheppig is quite right when he maintains that if we desire to recover the original nomenclature of the globe we must deal with it as a palimpsest. Such a process, however, might lead to the destruction of the globe, whilst the result possibly to be achieved would hardly justify running such a risk.

A General description.

The globe has a circumference of 1,595 mm, and consequently a diameter of 507 mm, or 20 inches. Only two great circles are laid down upon it, viz., the Equator, divided into 360 degrees, and the Ecliptic studded with the signs of the Zodiac. The Tropics, the Arctic and the Antarctic circles, are likewise shown. The only meridian, is drawn from Pole to Pole 80 degrees to the west of Lisbon. The sea is coloured a dark blue, the land a bright brown or buff with patches of green and silver, representing forests and regions supposed to be buried beneath perennial ice and snow. Perhaps the most attractive feature of the globe consists of 111 miniatures, for which we are indebted to Glockenthon's clever pencil. The vacant space within the Antarctic circle is occupied by a fine design of the Nuremberg eagle with the virgin's head, associated with which are the arms of the three chief captains by whose authority the globe was made, namely, Paul Volckamer, Gabriel Nutzel and Nikolaus Groland, of Behaim and Holzschuher. There are in addition 48 flags (including 10 of Portugal) and 15 coats of arms, all of them showing the heraldic colours. The miniatures illustrate a great variety of subjects. Forty-eight among them show us kings seated within tents or upon thrones; full-length portraits are given of four Saints (St. Peter, St. Paul, St. Matthew and St. Iago), of missionaries instructing natives and of travellers. Eleven vessels float upon the sea, which is peopled by fishes, seals, sea-lions, sea-cows, sea-horses, sea-serpents, mermen and a mermaid. The land animals include elephants, leopards, bears, camels, ostriches, parrots, and serpents. Among the animals represented we miss flying fish and whales, which Behaim must have observed even if he got no further than the Gulf of Guinea. Even more curious is Behaim's faulty representation of the Portuguese arms. Such a mistake may be forgiven to Italians like Bartholomeu di Pareto (1455) or Nicolas de Canerio (1502), but Behaim had resided for years in Portugal and had repeatedly sailed in Portuguese ships. The only fabulous beings which are represented among the miniatures are a merman and a mermaid near the Cape Verde Islands, and two Sciapodes in central South Africa, but syrens, satyrs and men with dogs' heads are referred to in some of the legends. Nor do we meet with the "Iudei clausi," or with a "garden of Eden," still believed in by Columbus. This is a commendable forbearance in an age which still rejoiced in "mirabilia". The globe is crowded with over 1,100 place names and numerous legends in black, red, gold or silver. The author has not always been happy in the selection of these names. Even in Germany and Belgium we miss such names as Hamburg, Lübeck, Antwerp, Brugge, Cologne and Frankfurt. Another curious omission is that of the island of Malta, which is likewise omitted by Giovanni Leardo (1448) and Waldseemüller (1507). A peculiar feature is the uncalled-for duplication of many place names..........

Extracts from our hardback book of translations continued:





islant, eislandt, isslandt (D 62)

jn eislandt ift schon weifs volkh vnd findt Christen dafselbft ift gewonheit daf man die hundt teler verkauft vnnd ire kindt geben fy hinwegk den kaufleutten vmb gots willen auf dafs die andern brot haben (C 76)..

jtem in jfslandt findt man menfschen vo 80 jaren die nie kain brott gefsen da wechft kain korn vnd an brot ftatt ift man dürr fifch.

jn der Jnsel ifslandt fengt men den ftock fifch den man im vnfer landt bringt (D 76).

In Iceland are handsome white people, and they are Christians. It is the custom there to sell dogs at a high price, but to give away the children to (foreign) merchants, for the sake of God, so that those remaining may have bread.

Item, in Iceland are to be found men eighty years of age who have never eaten bread, for corn does not grow there, and instead of bread they eat dried fish.

In the island of Iceland they catch the cod which is brought into our country.

The story of the Icelanders selling their dogs and giving away their children is a fable invented by English and Hanseatic pirates and merchants, who kidnapped children, and even adults, and sold them into slavery. As an instance may be mentioned the misdeeds of William Byggeman, the captain of the 'Trinity,' who was prosecuted in England in 1445, for having committed this offence.



Scotlant (D 60)

Wildt Scotlant (D 62) on the north coast, the "wilde Scotey" of Harding's chronicle, with a flag bearing the mysterious inscription Ioh. M Tratz, which Francis J. Grant, Esq., Lyon Clerk, suggests may stand for "Johny Groat's House," whilst the kneeling figure (only shown by Ghil. and Jom. and no longer traceable on the original) may refer to the Christian missionaries from Iona.

Orcanay (D 65) Orkneys. No islands visible on the original.

Lincoln (D 61) on mainland, which is omitted by Ghil. and for which Jom substitutes Saba! We should have expected to find Catenes (Caithness) in that position.

Edmundeburg (D 60), Edinburgh.

Tillf (D 59), the insula de til or tilf of Dulcert (1339), Andrea Benincasa (1476) and of others, off the Tay. This imaginary island is believed to be Thule. For a discussion of the question see Gough's edition of Camden's 'Britannia,' III, 126, 726.

The Western Isles of Hebrides (D 60) are shown, but the names attached to them, irgan, bea, dseds (Ghil and Jom call them argat, tia or lia, and led), are evidently much corrupted. Among the islands named by Dulcert (1339) and A. Benincasa (1476) are Argate, bra and ledros which Hamy ('Études,' p.436) ventures to identify with Egach, Bara and Torosay.

Engelant (D 55) with the Royal Standard (the leopards of England quartered with the lilies of France).

Jork (D 58), given by Jom only, York.

huntingdon (D 57).

glocester (D 55).

bristol (D 54).

Reymor (D 52), given by Jom only. It is A. Benincasa's Premua or Plymouth.

sorlinge (D 56), the Scilly Islands.

portsmouth (D 53).

lambeth (D 54).

london (D 55).

cambridge (D 57).

Illa da man (D 56), the island Man............


Extracts from our hardback book of translations continued:



Jnsula dos azores . . . . catharides (C 40).

Jnsula de Sacta maria (C 37), ilha de S. Maria.

Jnsula de sant michel (C 40). Ilha de S. Miguel, with the Portuguese flag. We are told nothing about the "burning mountain" and the great earthquake which happened in 1444.

Jnsula de Jesu cristo (C 43), ilha de Jesus Christo, now Terçeira.

Jnsula de pico (B 40), ilha do Pico.

neu flandern, oder Insula de faial (B 42), New Flanders or Ilha do Fayal. Two flags fly above the islands from the same flagstaff, the upper one with the arms of Nürnberg, the lower with those of Behaim. Two more flags are merely shown in outline and may have been intended for the arms of Portugal and Hurter. These skeleton flags are omitted on the Paris facsimile.

Jnsule de flores (C 44), ilha das Flores.

A sea-horse and four vessels sailing to the west are shown to the south of Flores.

The following legend to the north-east of the Azores has been added after Behaim's death:-

Martinus pehaimus verschied zu lisibo-na anno domini 1506 im 29 juli (C 45). nach crifti unfers lieben hern gepurt 1431 far alfs regiert in protugal jnfante don pedro wurden nach notturft zugericht zway fchiff auf 2 Jar gefpeifst von den hochgebornen Jnfanten don heinrichen defs koniks aufs portogalli bruder zu erfahren wafs do wer hinder fanct Jacob fynis terre weliche fchiff alfo gerüft fegelten alweg nach den untergang der fonnen bey 500 teusche meilen zuletft wurden fy ains tags anfichtig dife 10 jnfeln und aufs landt trettendt funden nichts dann wildnufs und vögel die waren fo zam dafs fy vor niemandt flohen aber von leutten oder thieren mit vier füssen war von wege der wildtnuss kains darkhumen zu wohnen um defswillen die vögel nit fcheuh waren

waren alfo wurden fy geheiffen infulen dos azores das ift auf teutsch fo vil als der habichen jnfeln und umb welichs willen der könik von portugal das ander jar fchikt 16 fchiff mit allerley zame thiere und liefs auf jede infel fein tail thun umb darzu multiplicieren (ABC 65). die obgefchriebini jnfeln wurde bewohnt anno 1466 wan der konik vo portugal dise infeln vo vleiffiger bydte wegen fi gefchenckt het der herzegin vo burgund feiner fchwester mit namen frawen isabella und waren in flandern difsmals grofs krieg und teurung, und fchickte die vorgenant herzogin vil volks man und frawe allerley handwerk mit fambt prieftern une was zum gottesdienft gehort etwen vil fchiff mit haufrath und was zu dem veldbau gehoert zu pauen aus flandern jn die jnfel lifs jedem in die zwai jar geben wafs fy nottürffig fein umb zu ewigen zeitten in allen meffen jr zu gedenkhen jegliche person mit einim aue maria welcher persone bei 2,000 ware und mit denen die feiter jürlich darkumen findt und feiter darine gewachfen di findt vil taufent worden anno 1493 do wonte in vil taufent per fohne noch da von teutsch und flaming angefeffen weliche unter dem edlen und geftrenge ritter hern jobfsten vo hürtter hern zu mörkirchen aus flandern meine lieben hern fchweher dem dife jnfel von der vorgenanten herzogin von burgundt jme und feine nachkhumen gegeben ift jn welichen jnfeln der portugalifchel zucker wechft und die frücht zwier im jar wan dafelbft nimermehr winter ift und alle leibs nahrung vaft wolf eil ift darumb kumen noch jarlich vil volckhs da umb jr narung da zu fuchen (B 20).

Martin Behaim died at Lisbon in the year of the Lord 1506 on the 29th July.

1431 years after the birth of our dear Lord, when there reigned in Portugal the Infante Don Pedro, the infant Don Henry, the King of Portugal's brother had fitted two vessels and found withall that was needed for two years, in order to find out what was beyond the St James's Cape of Finisterra.The ships thus provided, sailed continuiously westwrd for 500 german miles, and in the end they sighted these ten islands. On landing they found nothing but birds, which were so tame that they fled no one. But of men and four footed animals none had come to live there because of the wilderness, and this accounts for thebirds not having been shy. On thisground the islands were called dos azores, that is Hawk islands, and in the year after the King of Portugal sent 16 ships with various tame animals, part of whom were put on each island there to multiply. The above islands were first settled in the year 1466, the King of Portugal having presented them to his sister Donna Isabella, Duchess of Burgundy, who had urgently begged for them. There was at the time a great war and dearth in Flanders. The Duchess then despatched several vessels with men and women, mechanics and priests, together with utensils, for divine service, also domestic furniture and what is needed for agriculture. And each person was supplied with what was needed during two years on condition of remembering her for all time in all masses, each person saying one Ave Maria. Of these persons there were 2,000, and adding those who have come since that time every year, and the annual increase of population, there are now many thousands. In the year 1490 many thousand persons had settled there, Germans and Flemings, under the noble and worshipful Sir Jobst von Hürter, lord of Moerkerken in Flanders, my dear father-in-law, to whom and his descendants the said duchess gave this island. In these islands grows the sugar of Portugal, and the fruits ripen twice annually, for it is never winter there, and food of all kinds is very cheap, on account of which many people still go there every year in search of a living.

Behaim's bald and unsatisfactory account of the Azores is all the more surprising if it be borne in mind that he resided for years upon one of the islands, and enjoyed exceptional facilities for gaining knowledge of their geography and the history of the colonization. However, Behaim had many short-comings as a cartographer. Behaim's statement that the "sugar of Portugal" grows in the Azores is not borne out by other authorities, for Madeira was well known as the great sugar island of the Lusitanian Kingdom which yielded the King a splendid revenue. Val. Ferdinand in 1507 mentions woad, orseille (brazil) and wheat as the principal exports, and says nothing about sugar.......


Extracts from our hardback book of translations continued:



Taprobana (H 5), with a royal tent.

modin (H 9), Moda of Ghil.

Scorria (H 8),fcte of Ghil.

samia (H 6),Samfu?

cap frazio (H 6), captran of Ghil.

Taprobana von difer jnsel fchreibt man man unfs vil edler ding in den alten historien wie fy alexander magno geholffen haben und gen rom zogen findt mit den romern und kaifer pompejo fefellfchaft gemacht haben dife jnfel hat umbfangen 4,000 meil und ift getheilt in vier konikreich in welichen vil goldtes wechft auch pfeffer camphora lignum aloes auch vil goltfandt das volk pet abgotter an und findt groff ftark leut und gut astronomy.

Many noble things are said about this island in ancient histories, how they (the inhabitants) helped Alexander the Great and went with the Romans to Rome in the company of the Emperor Pompey. This island has a circuit of 4,000 miles, and is divided into four kingdoms, in which is found much gold and also pepper, camphor, aloe wood and also gold sand. The people worship false gods: they are tall, stout men, and good astronomers.



Seilan jnsula ein der beste jnsul in der welt aber de mer hat fie abgeben muffen (I 30 s).

In diser jnfell findt man vil edelgesteins perlein oriental der konik difer jnsul hat den grosten and schonste rubin den man in der welt je gefah dafs volkh gehet nakhet man und frawen kain korn wechft alda dan rais (J 38 s).

Jr konik ift niemandt underworffen und betten abgotter an die jnsul Seilan hat im craifs 2,400 meil als enfs fchreibt marco polo im driten buch am 19 capitel (I 46 s).

Jtem in vergangenen Jaren fchickht der grofs kaifer in cathay ain potschast zu disen konik von seilan lifs an in begern zu haben disen rubin fich erpietent grofsen fchatz dafur zu geben also gab der konik zu antwort wie dafs diser stein seiner vorfahren fo lang geweft wer fo stuendt in ebel an dafs er der folt fein der diesen stain dem landt folt empfrembten der rubin foll anderthalb fchuh lang fein und ain spann brait on alle mackhel (I 19 s).

The island Seilan, one of the best islands in the world, but it has lost in extent to the seas.

In this island Seilan are found many precious stones and oriental pearls. The King of this island possesses the largest and finest ruby ever seen in the world. The people, men and women, go naked. No corn grows there, only rice.

Its king is subject to no one, and they pray to false gods. The island Seilan has a circuit of 2,400 miles, as is written by Marco Polo in the 19th chapter of the third book.

Item, in past times the great Emperor of Cathai sent an ambassador to this King of Seilan, asking for this ruby and offering to give much treasure for it. But the King replied that this stone had for a long time belonged to his ancestors, and it would ill become him to send this stone out of the country. The ruby is said to be a foot and a half in length and a span broad, and without any blemish.

Marco Polo's Seilan is undoubtedly our Ceylon, and all that is said will be found in Pipino's version III 22, in Ramusio's III 19.



Java minor dise jnsel hat umbsangen 2,000 welsch meil und hat in ir acht konikreich und haben ein besundere Sprach und betten abgotter an do wechst auch allerlei Specerey jn den konikreich bossman genant find man vil ainhorner helfanten und affen die menschen angesicht und glidtmass haben jtem wechst kain korn da fy machen aber prot aufs reis an weinstatt trinken sy sasst der aus paumen tropft den man findt rot und weifs und ist ain redlich guet getranck von geschmackh dess haben sy nach nottursst genug in dem konikreich Samara aber in konikreich genanth Dageram ist gewonheit fo ir abgott sagt dass ein krancker mensch sterben foll so ersticket man dea kranckhen bey zeit und die freundt kochen das slaissch irs krancken freundt und essen jne mit einander mit grossen freudten aus dafs er den Wurmen nit zuthail werde. Aber in konikreich Jambri haben die leutt man und frawen hinden fchwenz gleich die hundt do wechft der best camphor in der welt den man mit golt abwigt daselbst find gross gewachsen paumen da zwischen holz und rinden auss dem Sasst mehl wurdt dass guet zu essen ist und marco polo fchreibt in feinem dritten buch am dem 16. Capittel er fey funf monath in difer jnsell gewest (J 42 s).

Java Minor. This island has a circumference of 2,000 Italian miles, and within it are eight kingdoms. They have a language of their own and worship idols. Various kinds of spices grow there. In the kingdom of Bosman are found many unicorns (rhinoceros), elephants and monkeys, who have human faces and limbs. No corn grows there, but they make bread of rice, and instead of wine they drink the sap which trickles from trees; it is found red and white, and furnishes a tasty good drink, of which they have as much as they need in Semara. In the kingdom of Dageran it is the custom that when their idol says that a sick person is about to die they suffocate the patient in time, and his friends cook the flesh of their sick friend and eat it with much rejoicing in order that the worms may not have it. But in the kingdom of Jambri men and women have tails like dogs. Excellent spices grow there and various animals are found, such as unicorns and others. In the kingdom of Fanfur is found the best camphor in the world, which is worth its weight in gold; there are tall trees, the sap of which, between the wood and the bark, is converted into flour (sago), which is good to eat. Marco Polo, in the 16th chapter of the third book, says that he spent five months in this island. (M. Polo's five months refer to Samara only.)

The Java Minor of Marco Polo is Sumatra. The information given in the above legend is derived from Pipino's version book III, 13-19. The reference to a five months' residence is to be found in c. 16 as stated. The eight kings are made to dwell in four tents. The little monkey on the south coast is referred to in c. 15.

felech (J 36 s) (perta or pertes of Jom and Ghil), called ferlach in Pipino's version, has been identified with Perlak.

bosna (J 36) (Pipino's bosman, the basma of others) has been identified with Paseir, on the north coast.

sama, Samara (J 39 s), corrupted by Ghil into fomat, the modern Samalanga on the north coast.......


Extracts from our hardback book of translations continued:



Insula Candyn (L 25 s).

dife jnfel candyn mit fambt den andern jnfulen fo java minor und angama und neucuran pentham seilan mit sambt der hohen jndia Sant thomas landt ligen fo vaft gegen mittag dafs der polus articus dafelbft mimmer mer mag gefehen werden aber fy fehen ein ander geftirn geheiffen antarcticus, dafs macht dafs daffelb landt ligt recht fufs gegon fufs gengen unfer landt uber und wen wir tag haben fo haben fy nacht und fo uns die Son undergeht fo haben fy jren tag, und das halb thail des geftirns das under uns ift das wir nit fehen das fehen fy, dafs macht dafs alles dafs die welt mit fambt dem waffer von rondter formb von Got gefchafen ift fo befchreibt Johannes de Mandavilla den lies in fein buch am dritten theil feiner moerfahrt.

This island Candyn, together with the other islands, Java minor, Angama Neucuran, Pentham and Seilan, together with High India, the country of St. Thomas, are situated so far to the south that the Polus Arcticus is no longer visible. They see, however, another star called Antarcticus. This is because this country lies foot against foot with respect to our land, and when it is day with us they have night, and when the Sun sets with us they have their day, and that half of the stars, which are beneath us, and not visible to us, are visible to them. All this is beca-use God has created the world together with the water of a round shape, as described by Johannes de Mandavilla in the third part of his voyage (C 17).

Candyn is usually identified with Odorico's Dondin or Duarte Barbosa's Dandon (Andam). Dr Hamy ('Etudes,' p. 162) identifies this island with Ombira, S. of the Moluccas; Romanet du Caillaud with the Philippine Islands; and A. Gummé ('Le Dondin et les Philippines,' Barc., 1897) with Ceylon or one of the Sunda Islands. On the Genoese Pitti Palace Map (1457) we read that a monster fish was taken in the Indian Ocean, at Candia, and taken to Venice. May not this Candia be identified with Candyn?


difer jnfell findt zehen gehaifen maniole dafelbft mag kain fchiff faren das eifen an hat umb defs magnet willen der dafelbft wechft (K 5 s).

There are ten of these islands called Maniole. No ship having iron in it dare navigate near them because of the magnet which is found there.

Ptolemy (VII 2) has "Maniolae insulae decim, quarum incolae sunt anthropophagi, in his gignitur magnes." These Magnet Islands of Ptolemy, however, are placed in the Sinus Gangeticus, whilst Behaim's legend is shifted to the east of the mainland. On fabulous Magnet Rocks, to be dreaded by mariners, because on approaching them the iron nails flew out, and the ship fell to pieces, see Peschel's essay in 'Abhandlungen zur Erd- und Völkerkundes,' Leipzig, 1877, p. 44 .


The above extracts are a mere handful of examples taken from our book of translations.



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